Thursday, 20 June 2019

370 light years away, astronomers discover the new "solar system"

Astronomers successfully captured two exoplanets. They were born in a protoplanetary disk that surrounds a young star (the protoplanetary disk is a dense gas surrounded by newly formed young stars). The gravitational force of the planet itself drags the planet disk during the movement and draws a huge gap. This marks the birth of a new "solar system".
370 light years away, astronomers discover the new "solar system"
Julien Girard, a researcher at the US Space Telescope Research Institute, said: "This is the first direct capture of a dual planetary system with a planetary disc gap."Although more than a dozen exoplanets have been photographed directly, the newly discovered stellar system numbered PDS 70 is the second multi-planet system discovered (the first is the four-planet system of the stellar HR 8799). Unlike the HR 8799, the planets in the PDS 70 continue to grow.The central star of the PDS 70 is about 370 light years from Earth. This star has been formed for more than six million years, and is smaller than our sun, but it is still growing in interstellar gas. The planet disk around it has a lot of gas and dust, and there is a big gap, the inner edge is 1.9 billion miles from the center star and the outer edge is 3.8 billion miles.

The innermost planet PDS 70b known in the PDS 70 stellar system is located in the interplanetary space of approximately 2 billion miles from the central star, and its orbit is similar to Uranus in our solar system. Researchers estimate that it weighs 4 to 17 times as much as Jupiter. It was first discovered in 2018.The PDS 70c is a newly discovered planet located near the outer edge of the planet's disc gap, about 3.3 billion miles from the center star, similar to the distance between Neptune and the Sun. It is lighter than the planet PDS 70b, about 1 to 10 times that of Jupiter. The two planet orbits are close to a 2:1 resonance, which means that the planet PDS 70b will circumscribe twice during the time that the planet PDS 70c is around the center star.This new discovery is very important because it directly proves that the newly formed planet can create a gap in the planet disk. "At present, there are gaps on the planet disks seen by large ground and space optical telescopes such as the Atacama Radio Telescope Array (ALMA) and the Hubble Space Telescope. Many people are thinking about whether there is a gap in the gap. Newly generated planets? Our observations affirm this view,” Gillard explained.The team detected the PDS 70c using the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory. Using the extremely high spatial resolution and excellent spectral resolution provided by an 8-meter telescope equipped with four lasers, the research team is able to lock the spectrum emitted by hydrogen atoms, marking the accumulation of interstellar gas (accumulation refers to the attraction of the celestial body) The process of continuously attracting and accumulating substances such as gas and dust in the surrounding space."This new observation technique was developed to better distinguish between galaxies and clusters. But it can also be used for exoplanet imaging." The first author of the article, Sebastian, Ph.D. student at the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands · Sebastiaan Haffert said, "We were very surprised when we found the second planet."

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